Tritrichomonas foetus in felines is a protozoan infection of the large intestine which can lead to prolonged and intractable diarrhea. Recent studies have shown that T. foetus infects approximately 31% of cats. Frequently cats are co-infected with Giardia or, because T. foetus and Giardia look similar, they are misdiagnosed with Giardia. When a cat that has been diagnosed with Giardia fails to respond to treatment, it is recommended that the cat be tested for T. foetus. |
The stool of an infected cat is often diarrhea of semi-formed to viscous consistency which may contain fresh blood or mucus and be malodorous. While the mode of infection is still unknown, it is suspected that the organism is passed through contact with an infected feline's feces to a non-infected feline. Both purebred and non-purebred cats have been found to be infected.
As more research is performed, treatments are becoming readily available. Dr. Jody Gookin at the North Carolina State University conducted a 2006 study showing that Ronidazole may have efficacy against T. foetus infection in cats, however Ronidazole is not currently approved by the FDA for use in cats.1
InPouchTM TF-Feline is the Gold Standard for the detection of T. foetus in felines by use of a fecal sample. Recommended by name, and with a history of success with the InPouchTM TF-Bovine test for T. foetus, the InPouchTM TF-Feline test is a fast, effective and economical way of testing for feline T. foetus.
- InPouchTM TF-Feline can detect a single trichomonad.
- Wet-mount procedure is a 50-50 proposition.
- Specialized formula of media allows for maximum growth of trichomonads while inhibiting growth of bacteria and Giardia.
- Requires less hands-on time than wet-mount.
- Two procedures are combined into one test.
- No expensive equipment required.
- One year, room temperature shelf life reduces storage cost.
Easy to Use
- Unique transport and test system.
- Wet-mount and culture in one system.
- Compact, non-breakable InPouchTM maintains organism viably for shipment for 48 hours.
- Eliminates exposure to Class III organism.
- Reduced volume of media reduces volume of hazardous waste.
InPouchĘ‚ TF - Feline
Tritrichomonas foetus Test
Recent research has found that T. foetus can cause some cases of chronic feline diarrhea. The incidence of this infection has been found more and more widely as further research has been conducted.
Principles of the Procedure
The InPouchĘ‚ TF - Feline is a self-contained system for the detection by culture of T. foetus from feline fecal samples. The proprietary medium is selective for the transport and growth of the trichomonad, while inhibiting the growth of yeast, mold and bacteria which might interfere with a reliable diagnosis. The InPouchĘ‚ consists of a high barrier, oxygen resistant, plastic pouch with two V-shaped chambers connected by a narrow passage. This two-compartment system allows direct observation (wet mount) of a newly collected specimen in the upper chamber before expressing the contents into the lower chamber for culture. An inoculum containing 1 to 10 organisms is sufficient to result in a presumptive positive test. Presumptive positive pouches for T. foetus can, verify the result. Transport if desired and offsite testing can be performed easily due to the flexible packaging and integral design of the pouch.
The InPouchĘ‚ medium contains the following: trypticase, protease, peptone, yeast extract, maltose and other sugars, amino acids, salts, antifungal and antimicrobial agents in a normal saline phosphate buffer.
For in vitro diagnostic use only. The pouch is labeled for animal identification and test results only. All specimens should be handled according to CDC-NIH recommendations for potentially infectious organisms. (BIOHAZARD LEVEL 2).
All InPouchesĘ‚ should be autoclaved or disposed by equivalent means (BIOHAZARD LEVEL 2).
Storage & Shelf Life
Store uninoculated InPouchesĘ‚ at room temperature (18®¨C to 25®¨C) in a horizontal position away from direct sunlight. Never refrigerate/freeze the InPouchesĘ‚. Product shelf life is 12 months from the date of manufacture.
Do not use an InPouchĘ‚ if it appears to be cloudy, leaky, dark brown, dry, or if the medium has thick syruplike consistancy.
The InPouchĘ‚ diagnostic medium is manufactured in small lots. Each lot is released only after a QC test of viability, doubling time, and sterility. QC testing is repeated through the end of shelf life by BioMed. Reference laboratory quality control should use BioMed Diagnostics Quality Control Procedure (Doc.# 100- 135).
BioMed Diagnostics maintains a live culture of T. foetus (clinical isolate) for QC purposes. This live culture (positive control) can be purchased from BioMed Diagnostics. (Catalog #12-3015) To maintain an active culture inoculate a new pouch with one drop (10•žl) of the actively growing culture and incubate at 18-25®¨C in the dark for up to 30 or until the organisms reach a concentration of 1 x 10 5 /ml at which time, inoculate another pouch.
°§ InPouchĘ‚ TF - Feline pouches
°§ Package Insert
°§ Microscope clips (optional)
Materials Needed But Not Supplied
°§ Infusion pipette
°§ Wooden applicator sticks/cotton-tipped swabs
°§ Microbiological loop
°§ Disposable gloves
°§ Microscope with 10x, 20x, and if available 40x objectives
°§ Insert a sterile cotton swab directly into the cat's rectum. It is not necessary to collect feces with the rectal swab since T. foetus clings to the cellular lining of the colon. Any feces obtained should only coat the swab. The swab should be free of preservatives that could kill T. foetus, ie. lube.
°§ Alternately, obtain approximately 0.03grams (smaller than a peppercorn) of freshly voided feces (within 1-2 hours) with either a clean wooden applicator stick or with a microbiology loop
°§ Remove the pouch from the bag and if necessary, manually express the liquid from one chamber to the other, resulting in approximately 1 ml in the upper chamber. Be sure that the liquid in the upper chamber is below the closure tape to prevent fluid from leaking upon opening.
°§ Tear open the pouch at the notch just above the closure. Open the pouch by pulling the closure tape's middle tabs apart.
°§ Feline applicator stick/loop/swab- insert the stick/loop/cotton-tipped swab into the liquid of the upper chamber. Remove the specimen by gently rubbing the stick/loop/swab between your thumb and forefinger and the walls of the upper chamber.
°§ Do not place an excessive amount of feces in the InPouchĘ‚. Squeeze the top to close, roll the top edge down and continue rolling twice. Fold the wire tabs over to prevent the InPouchĘ‚ from reopening.
Use the BioMed label to write animal identification information. Do not cover the chambers.
°§ Immediate Specimen Concentration - It is possible to concentrate the cellular material by standing the pouch vertically or by placing it in a vest or shirt pocket for at least 15 minutes prior to microscopic evaluation. The trichomonads will concentrate at the bottom of the chamber.
°§ Wet Mount - immediate microscopic examination. Place the viewing clip horizontally over the upper chamber and close the clip. (Using the clip is optional). Observe with a microscope under low power (10x), using (20x or 40x) if necessary for confirmation.
°§ READING TIP: Trichomomads gravitate to the edges of the InPouchĘ‚ just as they gravitate to the edges of a cover slip on a standard wet mount. If none are seen along the edges, briefly scan the liquid. Make sure to focus on the liquid and not the textured plastic of the pouch. Do not mistake Brownian motion of small debris particles for evidence of trichomonad activity.
1 to 10 trichomonads observed is presumptive positive.
Express all liquid into the lower chamber. Roll down the pouch until the tape is at the top of the label. Fold the wire tape's end tabs to lock the roll.
Incubate the pouch vertically at 37®¨C
Specimen Collection Laboratory Procedures